Long-term persistence of hormonal adaptations to weight loss (#7)
Background: Following weight loss, changes occur in circulating levels of several peripheral hormones involved in the homeostatic regulation of body weight. It is not known whether these changes are transient, or persist over time.
Methods: Fifty non-diabetic overweight or obese subjects started a 10-week weight loss program using a very-low-energy diet (VLED), followed by 1 year of attempted weight loss maintenance. Circulating concentrations of leptin, ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), amylin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), cholecystokinin (CCK) and insulin, and subjective ratings of appetite were examined at baseline, after the VLED, and at 1 year.
Results: Mean initial weight loss of 13.5 ± 0.5 kg led to significant reductions in leptin, PYY, amylin, CCK and insulin, and increases in ghrelin, GIP, PP and subjective appetite, which persisted at 1 year.
Conclusion: Compensatory changes in circulating mediators of appetite which encourage weight regain after diet-induced weight loss persist 12 months after initial weight reduction.